Here are a selection of clinical paper references relating to the sacral anterior root stimulator (SARS)

  • Laparoscopic endopelvic sacral implantation of a Brindley controller for recovery of bladder function in a paralyzed patient. M Possover, J Baekelandt, A Kaufmann, V Chiantera. Spinal Cord (2008) 46; 70-73
  • Surgical therapy of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (hyperreflexia) in paraplegic patients by sacral deafferentation and implant driven micturation by sacral anterior root stimulation: methods, indications, results, complications, and future prospects. J Kutzenburger.  Clinic for Neuro-Urology, Werner-Wicker-Klinik, Bad Wildungen, Germany.
  • Spastic bladder and spinal cord injury. 17 years experience with sacral deafferentiation (SDAF) and implantation of an anterior root stimulator (SARS). J Kutzenburger, B Domerath, D Sauerwein. Clinic for Neuro-Urology, Werner-Wicker-Hospital, Bad Wildungen, Germany. Experience with the Brindley anterior sacral root stimulator. L Robinson, A Grant, P Weston, T Stephenson, M Lucas, D Thomas. (Department of Urology, Cardiff Royal Infirmary; Spinal Injury Units, Rookwood Hospital, Cardiff and Lodge Moor Hospital, Sheffield.)
  • Deafferentation of the urinary bladder and implantation of a sacral anterior root stimulator (SARS) for treatment of the neurogenic bladder in paraplegic patients.  C Seif, K P Jünemann, P M Braun. Dept. of Urology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Germany, Biomed Tech (Berl). 2004 Apr ;49 (4):88-92 15171588 (P,S,G,E,B)
  • Pressure changes under the ischial tuberosities of seated individuals during sacral nerve root stimulation.   Liang Qin Liu, Graham P Nicholson, Sarah L Knight, Ramesh Chelvarajah, Angela Gall, Fred R I Middleton, Martin W Ferguson-Pell, Michael D Craggs. Spinal Research Centre, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital (RNOH), Stanmore, United Kingdom. J Rehabil Res Dev. ;43 (2):209-18 16847787 (P,S,G,E,B)
  • A 7 year follow-up of sacral anterior root stimulation for bladder control in patients with a spinal cord injury; quality of life and users experiences. J Vastenholt, G Snoek, H Buschman, H van der Aa, E Alleman, M Ijzerman. Spinal Cord (2003) 41; 397-402  )
  • Implantation of anterior sacral root stimulators combined with posterior sacral rhizotomy in spinal injury patients. G Egon, M Barat, P Colombel, C Visentin, J L Isambert, J Guerin. Urology (1998)16 ; 342-349
  • Results of the treatment of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in spinal cord injury by sacral posterior root rhizotomy and anterior sacral root stimulation. P van Kerrebroeck, E Koldewijn, P Rosier, H Wijkstra, F Debruyne. Urology (1996) 155; 1378-1381
  • The First 500 patients with sacral anterior root stimulator implants: general description.  G S Brindley MD FRCP FRS. (Spinal Injuries Unit. Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Stanmore, HA7 4LP, United Kingdom.
  • L’électrostimulation des racines sacrées antérieures dans le traitement des neuro-vessies centrales :Technique de G.S.Brindley. Résultats des 40 premiers cas francais. M Barat, G Egon, P Daverat, P Colombel, J Guerin, M Ritz, E Marit, M Herlant.
  • Worldwide experience with the Finetech-Brindley sacral anterior root stimulator. P van Kerrebroeck, E Koldewijn, F Debruyne. (Department of Urology, University Hospital Sint-Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.)
  • Physiological considerations in the use of sacral anterior root stimulators. G S Brindley. (Spinal Injuries Unit. Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, England.)
    The ‘Barcelona’ Technique. M Sarrias, F Sarrias, A Borau. Institute Guttmann, Centre de Paraplegics, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Constipation associated with chronic spinal cord injury: the effect of pelvic parasympathetic stimulation by the Brindley stimulator. N Binnie FRCS, A Smith MD FRCS, G Creasey FRCS, P Edmond FRCS. (University department of Surgery, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh; Spinal Injury Unit, Edenhall Hospital, Musselburgh, East Lothian, United kingdom.
  • Long-term follow-up of patients with sacral anterior root stimulator implants.  G S Brindley MD FRCP Hon-FRCS FRS, D Rushton MD FRCP. (MRC Neurological Prosthesis Unit, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom.)
  • Implant infections and antibiotic-impregnated silicone rubber coating.  D N Rushton, G S Brindley, C E Polkey, G V Browning. Medical Research Council Neurological Prostheses Unit, London, UK. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1989 Feb ;52 (2):223-9 2649641 (P,S,G,E,B)
  • THE FERRIER LECTURE, 1986. The actions of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves in human micturition, erection and seminal emission, and their restoration in paraplegic patients by implanted electrical stimulators. G S Brindley FRS. (MRC Neurological Prosthesis Unit, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom.)
  • Anterior Sacral Root Stimulator (Brindley): Experiences especially in women with neurogenic urinary incontinence. H Madersbacher, J Fischer, A Ebner. (Department of Urology and Neurosurgery, University of Innsbruck, and the Rehabilitation Centre Bad Häring of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board, Bad Häring, Austria.) Neurourol Urodyn 7: 1988, 593-601
  • Sacral anterior root stimulators for bladder control in paraplegia: the first 50 cases. G S Brindley, C E Polkey, D N Rushton, L Cardozo. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1986 Oct ;49 (10):1104-14 3491180 (P,S,G,E,B)
  • Urodynamic observations on patients with sacral anterior root stimulators.   L Cardozo, K R Krishnan, C E Polkey, D N Rushton, G S Brindley . Paraplegia. 1984 Aug ;22 (4):201-9 6333014 (P,S,G,E,B)
    Sacral anterior root stimulators for bladder control in paraplegia. G S Brindley, C E Polkey, D N Rushton. Paraplegia. 1982 Dec ;20 (6):365-381 6984503 (P,S,G,E,B)
  • The pressure exerted by the external sphincter of the urethra when its motor nerve fibers are stimulated electrically. G S Brindley, D N Rushton, M D Craggs . Br J Urol. (1974) Aug  46 (4):453-62 4416430 (P,S,G,E,B)
  • Fatigue in the human external anal sphincter and external urethral sphincter under electrical stimulation of their motor nerve fibers.  G S Brindley, M D Craggs, D N Rushton. J Physiol. 1974 Mar ;237 (2):55P-56P 4825469 (P,S,G,E,B)
  • Emptying the bladder by stimulating sacral ventral roots. G. S. Brindley. J Physiol 237: 1972, 15-16

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